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  • Home » » The Relation Of God With Time And Space As Seen By The Mu’tazilites

    The Relation Of God With Time And Space As Seen By The Mu’tazilites

    What al-ash ‘ari means by Istawa ‘alal- ‘Arsyi is that He has seated Himself on the Throne which he has localized above the seventh, and for the matter of that above the highest, heaven.
    In support of his contention, he has advanced numerous proofs of which only a few are given here :
    a)       Proof from the Qur’an.          
    “He directeth the ordinance from the Heaven unto the earth.”



    He Rules (all) affairs from the heavens to the earth : in the end Will (all affairs) go up[1] To Him, on a Day, The space where of will be (As) a Thousand years of your reckoning.
    Such is He, the Knower of all things, hidden And open, the Exalted (in power), the Merciful.[2]
    intend that business go up to it is have news to it brought by angel. This sentence an analogy for highness of His supremacy and Allah.

    “And Pharaoh said : O Haman ! Build for me a tower that haply I may reach the roads of the heavens, and may look upon the God of Moses though verily I think Him a liar. Here Pharaoh has falsified the statement of Moses that Verily God is above the Heavens. 




    Pharaoh said : “ O Chiefs! No god do I Know for you[3] But myself : therefor, O Hamman ! light me (kiln To bake bricks) out of clay, and build me a lofty[4] Palace, that I May mount up To the God of Moses : But as far as I am concerned, I Think (Moses) is A Liar.
    “Have ye taken security from Him who is in the Heavens, that he will not cause the earth to swallow you?” Here by the word as-sama’ (Heaven) al-Ash ‘Ari means al-‘Arsh (the throne of god), which is above the seven heaven.


    Do ye feel secure That He Who is in Heaven Will not cause you To be swallowed up[5] By the earth when it shakes (as in an earthquake)?

    If thou couldst see when they are set before their Lord. This verse shows that God is not in His creatures nor are they in Him. And hence, He must be sitting on His Throne.
    If thou couldst but see When they are confronted With their Lord. He will say : Is not This the truth ? They will say : yea, by our Lord !He will say : Taste ye then the Penalty, Because ye rejected Faith.

    If any do seek For glory and power,[6] to God belong all glory and power. To Him mount up (all) words of Purity : It is he Who exalts Each Deed of Righteousness. Those that lay Plots[7] Of Evil, for them Is a Penalty terrible ; And the plotting of such Will be void (of result) 
    Partly the expert interpret to say that good that word is sentence tauhid that is Laa ilaa ha illallaah; and there is also telling recitation to Allah and there is also telling all word which is both for said by Because Allah.
    His intention is that good word and the good that charitable boosted up to be accepted and given by reward Him.

    Behold ! God said ; O Jesus ! I will take thee[8] And raise tee to my self  And clear tee (of the falsehoods)[9] Of those Who blaspheme ; I will make those Who follow thee superior To those who reject faith, To the Day of Resurrection : then shall ye all Return Unto me, And I will judge Between you of the matters where in ye dispute.[10]

    Nay, God raised him up[11] Unto Him self ; and God Is Exalted in Power, Wise;__
    But ( what in fact), Allah Have lifted Jesus. and is Strong and heroic Allah The most again Wise The most.
    This sentence is as protest to ascription of Jew people, that they Have killed prophet of Jesus a.s

    b)      Proofs from the Tradition.
    1.      Possibility of  big is God alight from His throne to lowest heaven in each night to see His slave is which is asking for all kindliness of , and then says : “Is there any body to seek favour from me that may I give it and is there any body to beg pardon of me that I may pardon Him” and so on until the days down.
    2.      In fact the the infinite do not differentiate among / between rich with impecunious, what the white husk a dusky skinly, among / between ugly and good. except only Godfearingly differentiating. When one third of the night remains, God, and then says : “Who is there pray to me that I May accept it ?
    3.      Most effective time to pray is one-third  night. That He may be  give it and take like until it is morning.[12]
    4.      There is between his Thorne and the Heaven a distance of one thousand years journey and God, may He be Exalted and High is above that.[13]
    5.      That verily God is on the Throne which is above the Heaven.

    c)      Proofs from the  Ijma’
    1.      Really the infinite of  lord again the most anything, Which who He has raised Jesus to the Heaven.
    2.      When they pray to God, all Muhammadan raise their hand towards the Heaven because of  the fact that God, Which He has seated Himself on the throne which is above the seven Heaven. No Doubt again that Muhammadan people in this world if medium pray upturned sure his arms to for his sign that God at one's post most glorious. Nothing there is no most glorious place besides his place.
    3.      When they pray to God against an impending calamity, all A Muslims say : Dweller on the throne! That his sign that top-ranking God at one's post.
    4.      When they swear  they all say : "By Him who screens Himself with the seven Haven.


    d)     Philological Proof.
    Hence, ‘istawa’ here cannot mean ‘istawla’, which of universal application. But what it can mean and must mean is ‘sitting’, which elates to the particular application to the divine Throne only.

    e)      Logical Proof.
    God is in every place, as he Mu ‘tazilites would have us believe.
    The womb of the Virgin Mary and the latrines are places.
    God is in the womb of the Virgin Mary and the latrines, a conclusion than which nothing can be more repugnant and reprehensible to Islam.



    [1]               How could the immense mystery of Time behind our ideas of it be enforced on our minds better? Our day may be a thousand or fifty thousand years, and our years in proportion. In the immense Past was god’s act of creation : it still continues, for He guides, rules, and controls all affairs : and in the Immense Future all affairs will go up to Him, for he will be the judge, and his restoration of all values will be as in a day or an hour or the twinkling of an eye ; and yet to our ideas it will be as a thousand years!
    [2]               God’s attributes, then, may be summed up with reference to knowledge. Power  and Mercy. Where our Knowledge is partial and uncertain, his is complete and certain. Where our power often falls short of the carrying out of our will, or needs the help of Time, His is complete and conterminous with His Will. Where our mercy seems to be bounded by our opposed to justice, His is absolute and unconditioned.
    [3]               Pharaoh claimed, Himself, to be God, not only one God among many, but the only God : “ I Am your Lord Most High “  at any rate he did not see Why his people should worship any one but Him.
    [4]               I Understand his Speech to his minister Haman to be sarcastic. But some commentators have taken it very seriously and imagined that he actually thought of reaching the Heavens by building lofty towers.
    [5]               If we feel safe on land, it is because god has made this earth amenable, manageable, and serviceable to us. But if we defy God and break his Law, have we any security, that even this comparatively unimportant safety in a fleeting world will last? Looking at it from a purely physical point of view, have there not been dreadful earthquakes, typhoons and tornadoes?
    [6]               Good and Evil are to be distinguished sharply. No Good is ever lost : it goes up to the Throne of God. The Humblest Good, in word or deed, is exalted to high rank. If man seek for mere glory and power, there is no such thing apart from God. But seeking God, we attain to the highest glory and power.
    [7]               It is the nature of Evil to work underground, to hide from the light, to plots against Righteousness ; but Evil inevitably carries its own punishment. Its Plots must fail miserably. And eventually Evil itself is to be blotted out.
    [8]               Where it is said that the jews neither crucified nor killed jesus. But that another was killed in His likeness. The guilt of the Jews Remained, but jesus was eventually taken up to God.
    [9]               Jesus was charged by the jews with blasphemy as claiming to be God or the son of God. The Christian adopted the substance of the claim. And made it the corner stone of their faith. God clears jesus of such a charge or claim.
    [10]             All the controversies about dogma and faith will disappear when we appear before God. He will judge not by what we profess but by what we are.
    [11]             There is difference of opinion as to the exact interpretation of this Verse. The Words are: The Jews did not kill jesus, but God raised Him Up to Himself. One School holds that Jesus did not die as usual human death, but still lives in the body in Heaven ; another holds that h did die but not when he was supposed to be crucified, and that his being “raised up” unto God means that instead of being disgraced as a melafactor, as the jews intended, he was on the contrary honoured by God as His Apostle. 
    [12]             in this hadist is said that by a the infinite alight from His throne at one-third the night to listen His slave is which is any requesting and also who so ever which request kindliness for hence the the infinite will grant it because of  by then is most effective time.
    [13]             Hadist He is for expressing that distance of is the His creature and creator apart thousands of year to go through it, in consequence Is which is glorious the most and high the most the degree.
                    
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